Spektorowski Alberto, Dr.
Room number: 522 , Naftali building
In the subfield of comparative politics I am interested in problmes of citizenship, nationalism and civic integration. I have been studying the emerging of radical right wing movements in Europe in comparative perspective.
Populist leadership in Fascist, Marxist and Democratic regimes
Dr. Alberto Spektorowski
The course deals with populist leadership and communication between the leader and the people in different regime types: democracy , authoritarian and fascist - We will focus on "authoritarian personality" of modern politics are theoretical significance and practical significance -
The course will discuss in detail the psychological and ideological factors behind the political leadership of personalities such as Mussolini, Hitler, Peron, Franco and Stalin, and will explore the direct , non institutionalized communication they succeed in creating between them and the people. Moreover, the course will focus as well in the new institutional framework created by those populist leaders. Fascist, Communist and Populist regimes differ each other although all of them share a contempt for liberal democracy and liberal rights. All of them needed a political leader that would express in a non mediated way the will of the people or the social class. The course will analyze why the new political frame created by these regimes suited the role of populist leadership.
In the last chapter of the course we will discuss the significance of populist leaders in democratic regimes. . We will focus on the question of whether a populist leadership is the only tool that can break the bureaucracy to promote or to hamper social reforms. We shall analyze in comparative way the idea of neo liberal populism as expressed by political leaders such as Menem in Argentina Fujimori in Peru and Natanyahu in Israel. All of them managed to produce non popular economic reforms through populist democratic means. As a way of contrast we shall deal with the new democratic populism in Latin America as expressed by Chavez in Venezuela and Cristina Kirchner in Argentina on the one hand and the Populist Radical Right in Europe, which is endorsing the side of economic nationalism and racism. Despite obvious differences, we shall trace the share conviction in those leaders and their parties that popular democracy is a response to liberal democracy and globalized political and economic elites.
Finally we shall discuss the relevant question whether populist leadership comes to the aid of democracy or undermines it.
Leadership and authoritarian personality..
Theodor Adorno Authoritarian Personality (W. W. Norton & Company) – Trade paperback (1993) Chap xix http://ada.evergreen.edu/~arunc/texts/frankfurt/ap/types.pdf
Gustave Le Bon The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind", (1896) Book 1, Ch.1 "The Mind of the Crowds"; Book II Ch.1. "The Opinions and beliefs of crowds"
Fascism and leadership: Mussolini
Georges Sorel Reflections on violence, (Cambridge University Press, 1999) pp 65-87" Chp." The decadence of the bourgeoisie and violence ' and pp 143 -175 Chp "The political general strike"
Denis Mack Smith Mussolini (Great Britain , Weidenfled and Nicolson, 1981) Chp. 2 and Chp 8
James Gregor Young Mussolini and the Intellectual Origins of Fascism (University of California Press, 1979)
Weeks 5-6 Hitler and Populist Racism
Ian Kershaw "Hitler : master in the Third Reich or Weak Dictator" from
Kershaw Ian The Nazi Dictatorship. London Arnold 1985
Ian Kershaw Hitler. A bibiography ( New York, Norton and Company 2008) Chp.6 "Emergence of a leader" pp 139-159
Week 7 Authoritarian leadership in conservative regimes: Franco in Spain, Salazar in Portugal, Pinochet in Chile
Stanley Payne The Franco Regime ( 1936-1975) ( Wisconsin University press, 1987) Chp 2 "An authoritarian alternative" Chp 7 The establishment of the Franco dictatorship"
António Costa Pinto & Maria Inácia Rezola "Political Catholicism, Crisis of Democracy and Salazar's New State in Portugal" in Mathew Feldman, Marius Turda & Tudor Georgescu (edited by) Clerical Fascism in Interwar Europe London , Routledge 2008
Heraldo Munoz Pinochet. The Dictator's Shadow A Political Memoir ( Basic Books 2008) Chp 3. " The Power to Dictate"
Weeks 8-9 Populist leadership in Marxism. Lenin, Stalin and Fidel Castro
Isaac Deutscher, Stalin A Political Biography ( Oxford University Press, 1967 Introduction and Chp 1.
Thomas Leonard, Castro and the Cuban Revolution, (Greenwood Press, 1999) Chp.1 "Establishing a New Order: The Cuban Revolution, 1959-1961"
Weeks 10-11-12 Classical Populism, Neo Liberal Populism and the renewal of social populism
Margaret Canovan, "Populism" in Adam and Jessica Kuper (eds.), The Social Science Encyclopedia, London and New York 1996, pp. 646-648
Paul Lewis The Crisis of Argentine Capitalism. (NC University of North Carolina Press Chapel Hill, NC. 1990) Chp 7 "The roots of charisma"
Ellner, S. 2003. "The Contrasting Variants of the Populism of Hugo Chávez and Alberto Fujimori" Journal of Latin American Studies 35: 139-162 Part 1 (February)
Weyland, Kurt. 2003. "Economic voting reconsidered - Crisis and charisma in the election of Hugo Chavez" Comparative Political Studies 36 (7): 822-848 (September)
Paul Ginsborg Silvio Berlusconi. Television, Power and Patrimony ( London, Verso 2004)
Duane Swank and H G Betz Globalization, the Welfare State and right wing populism in Western Europe Socio Economic Review ( 2003) 1. 215-245
M. Goodwin "Right Response Understanding and Countering Populist Extremism in Europe" Chatham House Report September 2011
Debate : Is Populism good for democracy ?
Margaret Canovan, "Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy," Political Studies 47 (1999).
Argentina's Revolution of the Right (South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2003)
Spektorowski, A. and Saban L. "Staying Alive- Genetics in the Service of the Welfare 'People's home' Israel and Sweden in Comparative Perspective" Comparative Political Studies. July 2010
Spektorowski, A "De Maistre, Donoso Cortez and the Argentinean National Right¨ Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions Volume 9, Number 4, December 2008 pp. 455-474(20
"Ethnoregionalism, Multicultural Nationalism and the Idea of the European Third Way". Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 2007, VOL 7; NUMB 3, pages 45-63
1990: Trustees Board for Higher Education Scholarship, Tel Aviv
1995: Curiel Center for International Studies- Scholarship, Tel Aviv University
1996: Curiel Center for International Studies Scholarship, Tel Aviv University
2007 : Israel Science Foundation Grant
2008 : CECI ( Citizens Empowerment Center Israel) Prize for Nationalism, Multiculturalism and the "confederation of peoples": Israel and Palestine